Fuad Afnan

In 1938 Fuad Afnan, the younger brother of Ruhi Afnan, decided to continue his studies at the Imperial College in London, having graduated from the American University of Beirut. Before leaving, he asked Zia Khanum (Shoghi Effendi‘s mother) whether the Guardian would have any objections. Her answer was “why would he have any objections to his continuing his studies in the UK?”

While in London, Fuad was an active member of the Baha’i community and attended the weekly meetings.

He had volunteered to become an Air Raid Warden when the war broke out in 1939. In 1941, during one of these air raids he was hit by a bomb and killed.

Hassan Balyuzi, a Hand of the Cause, sent a cable to the Guardian informing him of the tragedy. The Guardian sent a messenger to Fuad’s mother, Touba Khanum, Shoghi Effendi’s aunt, to convey the news.

Shoghi Effendi posthumously excommunicated Fuad Afnan, even though he had been a loyal Baha’i his entire life.